Engineering Design Languages
Four different representations or languages to describe the bolt can be used to describe any mechanical object:
- Semantic. The verbal or textual representation of the object—for example, the word bolt, or the sentence, “The shear stress on the bolt is the shear force divided by the stress area.”
- Graphical. The drawings of the object—for example, scale representations such as solid models, orthogonal drawings, sketches, or artistic renderings.
- Analytical. The equations, rules, or procedures representing the form or function of the object—for example, τ = F/A.
- Physical. The hardware or a physical model of the object.
Reference: David G. ULLMAN, The Mechanical Design Process, 4th edition, Mc Graw Hill, 2010